COMPARE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
IN SOME DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
Environmental Engineering, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru
Abstract : Waste is a by product of our daily activities, which poses a serious threat to societies all over the world. In some developed countries where have high population, representing high quantity of solid waste which was pressing problems in most urbanized cities. In this study, three different municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios were developed and compared for three countries, there are Indonesia, Kuwait, and India. Basicly, all of management from that countries have the same purpose, that is to manage the solid waste better. But they have different methods each other.
The solid waste management is an important part in municipal solid waste. Population growth and economic development in the country influence of solid waste quantity. In most big cities in developed countries, the solid waste management become problem. The different countries have the different solid waste management. And the purpose from this activity is to compare the solid waste management from some developed countries and choose the better.
1.Solid Waste Management in Indonesia
Study area includes Jabotabek from the names Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi as well as the western Java cities of Serang, Bandung and Cirebon, and the east Java provincial city of Surabaya. The current study had been limited to urban activity and domestic wastes since solid waste management was a pressing issue in the areas. Daily quantity of waste from households was observed for high income settlement of Surabaya.
Solid waste management was identified as a typical scheme within the study area. Collection, transfer, temporary disposal and final disposal chain was shared by the waste generators, the local community organizations (RT and RW) and the local government cleaning agency (Dinas Kebersihan).
Typical scheme of solid waste management in Java
A community group covering 40 – 60 households is organized as one RT as the smallest local community organization. RW consisting of 5 – 7 RTs was responsible for the haulage of its collected waste to the nearest temporary waste disposal. Collection and transportation as well as the provision of small carts were financed by households that were organized by RT and RW. Capacity and number of carts were not limiting the waste collection activity. This was probably associated to when householders received monthly salary. Waste collection was carried out twice a week.
The temporary disposal station is called TPS. It is classified into “landasan” and “depo”. Landasan has an area of about 100 m2 where as depo encompasses 200 – 300 m2 for storage and administrative office. Both landasan and depo were built with reference to national standard and practically they have the same capacity of about 50 m3. Solid waste wascollected from the temporary stations to the disposal site (TPA) using open dump trucks and/or arm roll trucks with container. It were organized and financed by the Dinas Kebersihan.
2. Solid Waste Management in Kuwait
The state of Kuwait is a relatively small country with industries oriented mainly towards the oil sector. In Kuwait produces 1.4 Kg/day of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and waste released to the environment. LCA evaluates and implements opportunities to allow environmental improvements. LCA is also a method for assessing environmental burdens associated with processes or products in a ‘cradle to grave’ fashion, from production of the raw materials to ultimate disposal of waste.
LCA has been used in many studies as an environmental tool for comparative assessments of waste disposal options or management scenarios. Mechanical recycling was compared with incineration in the context of LCA. In a fact, it was concluded that mechanical recycling of plastics resulting is a more attractive option than incineration, which has a larger environmental burden. The objective of this study was to use LCA as a tool to compare three different solid waste management system options and determine the most feasible system for the state of Kuwait.
The three scenarios considered in this study with the system boundaries are illustrated in Fig.1. The first scenario consists of three main steps: collection, transport and landfilling of MSW.
C : collection
L : landfilling
T : transport
MRF :materials recovery facility
I : incineration
AD : anerobic digestion
3. Solid Waste Management in India
There has been a significant increase in MSW (municipal solid waste) generation in India in the last few decades. This is largely because of rapid population growth and economic development in the country. Solid waste management has become a major environmental issue in India.
A. Market Actions for Waste Reduction
By charging for the environmental and economic costs of production and disposal of waste, market forces can be employed to improve the efficiency of waste management. It will use less packaging or adoption of the recyclable/reusable packaging material would be promoted. At the consumer end also the tendency to reuse the material would be promoted.
B. Mandatory Standards for Waste Reduction
Setting mandatory standards from goverment could make business responsible for the waste it generates.
C. Education and Voluntary Compliance
It consists of a voluntary programme of consumer education and business initiatives to become friendly environmental.
D. Collection of Waste
The preferred option would be to change the existing collection service structure to provide community with waste bins, conveniently placed for the people to deposit domestic waste, and door to door collection of waste.
E. Treatment and disposal
Proper segregation of waste would lead to better options and opportunities for its scientific disposal.
F. Intitutional and Regulatory Reform
The financial ia become problem. The private sector is now becoming a key player in a number of industrialized nations. Private sector participation can help upgrade technical and managerial expertise, increase efficiency in operation and maintenance, improve customer services, apart from bringing in the capital to support the government in its efforts at waste management.
Non-governmental organizations can play an important role in effectively projecting the community’s and highlighting its basic requirements for urban services.
This study was conducted to compare the more effective municipal solid waste management system of three developed countries, Indonesia, Kuwait, and India.
• Scenario 3 (Collection + Transportation + MRF + Anaerobic Digestion + Landfilling), solid waste management in Kuwait is more effective than other. It was found to be the option with the minimum environmental impact. It also had the least amount of hazardous final MSW fraction.
• Setting Mandatory Standards for Waste Reduction is a good to make business responsible for the waste it generates.
• Education and Voluntary Compliance is the effective solution to reduce the solid waste. It program can make consumer and business to become friendly environmental.
1. Al-Salem. S.M. 2009. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Municipal Solid Waste Management in the State of Kuwait.
(http://findarticles.com/ai_n28453966/ diakses pada 1 Oktober 2010)
2. Mangkoediharjo, S., etc. 2007. Priority Improvement of Solid Waste Management Practice in Java.
(http://www.trisanita.org diakses pada tanggal 1 Oktober 2010)
3. Singhal, S., Pandey, S., 2008. Solid Waste Management in India: Status and Futere Directions.
(http://swlf.ait.ac.th/data/pdfs/pswm1.pdf diakses pada 1 Oktober 2010)